Saturday, July 29, 2006

Principles of a Christian Environmental Ethic

Principles of a Christian Environmental Ethic: With Applications to Agriculture, Natural Resources, and the Environment
John C. Bergstrom


John C. Bergstrom is a Professor in the Department of Agricultural and Applied Economics at the University of Georgia in Athens, Georgia.  He teaches and
conducts research related to natural resource, environmental and agricultural topics and issues. As a Christian professor, he is interested in the integration
of Biblical teaching on stewardship and our responsibilities as stewards and managers of God's creation. He lives in Watkinsville, Georgia with his wife
and four children and is a member of Faith Presbyterian Church (PCA) in Watkinsville.


"Where do you live?" is a question most people have been asked many times.  When answering this question, our automatic response is most likely to think
about the place where our homes made out of brick, wood or stone are located.  How would God answer the question of where each one of us lives?  What physical
home or homes has God given to all people? 

The Bible teaches that when we put our faith and trust in Jesus Christ, He will lead us to an eternal heavenly home prepared by God.  But, until we are
called to live forever with God in our heavenly homes, we must live within the physical homes God has provided for us.  These physical homes include the
entire planet earth,  the various natural environments found on the planet, our towns and cities, and the houses or apartments where we lay our heads down
at night to sleep.

Thus, upon further reflection, the question of "Where do you live?" can be answered from a number of different perspectives and is perhaps a much more thought-provoking
question than one may initially imagine.  The perspective we are most interested in for this paper is the concept of the entire planet earth and different
natural environments as places God has deliberately and carefully designed as homes for the people, plants and animals He has created.

Because we all live on the same planet and are ultimately dependent on the natural fruits of the earth for life-support, everyone has a stake in how elements
of nature and natural systems are used and managed.  When a specific natural resource or environmental issue or problem arises, individuals and groups
often disagree on the appropriate course of action to resolve the issue or problem.  At the core of these disagreements are different values and beliefs
related to nature itself, and the use and management of nature by people.  A growing number of scholars in the humanities, social sciences and physical
and biological sciences are emphasizing that environmental issues and problems are fundamentally interrelated with ethical issues and problems (Daly; Means;
Santmire; Schaeffer; Stewart; Van Dyke et al; White).  Consequently, we are hearing more voices saying that in order to solve environmental issues and
problems, people need to develop and follow an appropriate “moral basis” for dealing with nature.  This recognizes a basic tenant of human behavior taught
in the Bible: true change starts from within a person’s heart, mind and spirit and works outward as reflected by attitudes and actions.  In all areas of
our lives, the substance of our inner faith determines the living out or practice of our faith.

The system of values and beliefs that influence how a persons thinks and acts is known as that person’s ethical system or ethics.  The purpose of this paper
is to discuss three general principles of a Christian environmental ethic and applications of this ethic to agricultural, forestry and environmental sciences.  
The three general principles of a Christian environmental ethic are: 1) God created and therefore values all of His works of creation  (Principle of Creation
Value); 2) God created and sustains all elements and systems in His creation within particular orders to meet certain ongoing purposes (Principle of Sustained
Order and Purpose); and 3) Everything in the created world and universe  is subject to corruption by sin and ultimate redemption through Jesus Christ (Principle
of Universal Corruption and Redemption).

Christian Environmental Ethic Principles

The three general principles of a Christian environmental ethic are consistent with a careful study of God's Word found in the Holy Bible as illuminated
by a number of historical and recent authors (Schaeffer; Van Dyke et al).  The meaning and Biblical basis for these principles are discussed in more detail
in this section.

Principle of Creation Value

The Principle of Creation Value first recognizes that God created the heavens and earth and all things found therein (Genesis 1; Psalm 146:6; Acts 14:15;
Revelation 4:11).  For example, Revelation 4:11 states: “You are worthy, our Lord and God, to receive glory and honor and power, for you created all things,
and by your will they were created and have their being.” (Revelation 4:11, NIV).  The Bible also teaches that although God allows people to utilize elements
of nature, God retains ownership of all His creation (Psalm 24:1; Psalm 89:11; Leviticus 25:23; Colossians 1:15-16).  For example, Psalm 24:1 states; “The
earth is the Lord’s, and everything in it, the world, and all who live in it” (Psalm 24:1, NIV). 

The Bible teaches that God loves and enjoys all that He has created.  Psalm 145:16-17, for example, states: “You open your hand and satisfy the desires
of every living thing.  The Lord is righteous in all his ways and loving toward all he has made” (Psalm 145:16-17, NIV).  Thus, an  important implication
of the Principle of Creation Value from an ethical standpoint is that God places value on elements of nature independent of human use and human-centered
values (Genesis 1:25; Psalm 104:31; Psalm 148:9-13).  This God-centered inherent value of nature is termed theistic intrinsic value by Barrett and Bergstrom). 

Plato’s philosophy influenced the Gnostic view of the physical world that arose within the first-century Christian church.  Followers of Gnosticism taught
that the spiritual world contains all that is good, and that everything in the physical or material world is bad (Brown).  Thus, under Gnosticism, nature
would have a negative value and is something that should be disregarded in a person’s life.

Christians in the modern church who say that “nature really doesn’t matter because it’s part of the physical world” are carrying on the heritage of Plato
and the Gnostics.  This position, which has a very low view of nature’s value, is not supported by the Scriptures.  As pointed out by Schaeffer, the greatest
testimony to the lasting value and importance of the physical world is that Jesus Christ’s physical body was resurrected from the dead and exists today
in the unseen spiritual world.  In the new heaven and earth that God will someday create, Scripture teaches that in addition to Christians being given
new, resurrected bodies, nature will also be renewed.  As discussed in more detail later in the paper, both people and nature will therefore have existence
and value in eternity. 

The other extreme position on the value and importance of the physical world and nature that Christians should not fall into is one that improperly elevates
the status of nature to being equal to or even above people.  The “equality between people and nature” viewpoint in considered first.  In modern times,
certain secular environmental ethics or philosophies such as “deep ecology” teach that people and nature have equal status and value in the world (VanDeVeer
and Pierce).  Such viewpoints on the parity between people and nature can enter into the church as erroneous teaching (Burrell; Campolo).  Scripture teaches
although God values nature, He places a special higher value on people who He “crowned with glory and honor” as the climax of His creation (Genesis 1:26-30;
Psalm 8:5-8).  The “nature above people” viewpoint is considered next.

Romans 1:20-23 states: “For since the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities - his eternal power and divine nature - have been clearly seen, being
understood from what has been made, so that men are without excuse.  For although they knew God, they neither glorified him as God nor gave thanks to him,
but their thinking became futile and foolish hearts were darkened.  Although they claimed to be wise, they became fools and exchanged the glory of the
immortal God for images made to look like mortal man and birds and animals and reptiles” (Romans 1:20-23, NIV).   This passage refers to people who knew
or at least knew of God but elevated nature to be objects or idols of worship.  The worship of anything in nature violates the Second Commandment in which
God states: “You shall not make for yourself an idol in the form of anything in heaven above or on the earth beneath or in the waters below.  You shall
not bow down to them or worship them” (Exodus 20:4-5, NIV).

Principle of Sustained Order and Purpose  

The Principle of Sustained Order and Purpose implies that God originally created all elements of nature to fit and function together in an orderly fashion
within interrelated systems to meet certain ongoing purposes.  God's direct involvement in natural systems did not end after the original creation period
described in Genesis 1.  The triune God continues to hold together or sustain the functioning of nature, accomplishing His intended order and purpose of
all nonliving and living elements of nature and natural systems.

What are the various purposes of nature according to the Bible?  One of the reasons God created and continues to sustain nature, as discussed above under
the Principle of Creation Value, is for God himself to love and enjoy.  Another purpose is to help meet people’s needs such as food and shelter (Genesis
2:15; Genesis 9:3).  A third major purpose of nature is to glorify and reveal God to people everywhere (Psalm 19:1-4; Romans 1:18-20).  For example, Psalm
19:14 states: “The heavens declare the glory of God; the skies proclaim the work of his hands.  Day after day they pour forth speech; night after night
they display knowledge.  There is no speech or language where their voice is not heard.  Their voice goes out into all the earth, their words to the ends
of the world.” (Psalm 19:14, NIV).

To meet their intended purposes, God created and sustains all of creation within particular orders.   The first large-scale Creation ordering of interest
is the Biblical hierarchy between God, people and nature.  Understanding and applying a Christian environmental ethic requires a proper interpretation
of Biblical verses establishing and describing this basic hierarchy.  A key verse is Genesis 1:28 which states: “So God created man in his own image, in
the image of God he created him, male and female he created them.  God blessed them and said to them, ‘Be fruitful and increase in number; fill the earth
and subdue it.  Rule over the fish of the sea and the birds of the air and over every living creature that moves on the ground’” (Genesis 1:28, NIV).

Genesis 1:28 establishes that in God’s basic ordering of Creation, people have dominion over nature.  However, Genesis 1:28 also clearly states the people
are creations of God.  As creations of God, people are under the authority or dominion of God.  Thus, from the perspective of God’s authority and control,
people and nature are in the same class or order - all of Creation including people must submit to God’s plans and ways.  The basic Biblical relationships
and ordering between God, people and nature are illustrated in Figure 1.   A similar illustration is provided and discussed by Schaeffer.  

In Figure 1, it is first shown that there is a fundamental separation between God and his creation including people.  God is above people and nature and
both people and elements of nature such as plants and animals must interact and live together within the same created world governed by God’s ways and
plans.  Thus, people share a common heritage and bond with plants, animals and other elements of nature as fellow creations of God.  People, like plants
and animals, must also cope with living in a physical world and universe created and controlled by God.

The diagram also illustrates that within the physical world and universe, people are above nature.  People are above nature by the grace and will of God
only - not by our own power and ingenuity.  God created people in His image to exercise Godly dominion over nature.  Godly dominion over nature, as discussed
in more detail later in the paper, means that people act as stewards or caretakers of nature who are ultimately responsible to God for their use and management
of nature.

In addition to the major large-scale relationships or orders between God, people and nature illustrated in Figure 1, God created and sustains elements of
nature within particular orders to meet deliberate purposes.  The food chain system shown in Figure 2 illustrate how living and nonliving elements of nature
in an ecosystem fit and function together to provide life-support for each other.

As illustrated in Figure 2, living plants take nutrients from the soil.  Herbivores such as rabbits or deer eat plants for food.  Carnivores such as mountain
lions eat other animals for food.  When plants and animals die, microorganisms in the environment decompose the plant and animal body material into basic
chemicals that go back into the soil.  These chemicals are then taken up by plants for nutrients completing the cycling of life-supporting chemicals through
the environment. 

People are also dependent on the food chain and chemical cycling systems illustrated in Figure 2.  The linkages and interrelationships between people and
elements of nature and natural systems are illustrated at a broader scale in Figure 3.  Figure 3 illustrates the planet earth home God has provided for
all of us, and the global interrelationships between people and nature.

 The scientific study of natural life-support systems falls under the realm of ecology.  The word ecology is derived from the Greek root words, “eco” meaning
“house” and “logy” meaning “study”.   The word ecology can therefore be literally interpreted to mean “house study” or the “study of the house”.  The “house”
being referred to here is the planet earth and its natural systems.  Before describing how the earth’s natural systems provide life-support, consider the
artificial life-support systems that people build into the various dwellings we call home at a small scale.  

The actual physical dwellings in which we live were constructed by people with certain life-support systems in mind.  These artificial life-support systems
include: air circulation systems to regulate oxygen (O2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) levels so that indoor air is healthy to breathe; water systems to provide
safe and secure drinking water supplies; heating and cooling systems to regulate indoor temperatures at healthy levels; and waste disposal systems that
help to prevent illness by safely and regularly removing potential germ-producing human wastes and garbage.

The planet earth and different environments such as forests, deserts, oceans, lakes and rivers were created by God with natural life-support systems in
his mind and design.  God built several major chemical cycles into our planet earth home.  Each of these cycles helps to provide all that is needed to
support life on earth.  For example, the carbon and oxygen cycle helps to provide breathable air and regulate global temperatures at livable levels.  The
hydrologic cycle helps to provide water to drink and for a multitude of other purposes.

The different chemical cycles also contribute to the provision of mineral resources such as coal, oil and natural gas that we use as fuel for transportation,
electricity, and heating.  These cycles also support renewable resources such as trees and fish and wildlife.  We use trees for consumptive uses such as
lumber, and to support nonconsumptive uses such as recreation and aesthetic enjoyment.  We use fish and wildlife for consumptive uses such as harvesting
ocean fish for food, and hunting of wildlife on public and private lands.  We also use fish and wildlife for nonconsumptive recreational uses and aesthetic
enjoyment such as wildlife observation and photography (Barrett and Bergstrom).

When people use elements of nature for commercial production and consumption, and even recreational and aesthetic enjoyment, some level of waste-by products
enter the environment.  Smoke stakes into the air and effluent discharge pipes into rivers are obvious evidence of these waste by-products.  When people
use a forest or park for recreation, waste by-products are emitted into the air from automobiles, RVs, ATVs  and motorboats.  Solid wastes in the form
of litter are also often left behind.

God has built waste assimilation and treatment capabilities into natural systems.  For example, scientists have documented the natural ability of wetlands
to filter chemicals out of water that are potentially harmful to human health.  However, excessive use of a particular natural system such as a wetland
area by people for waste by-product disposal may threaten the continued ability of that natural system to assimilate and treat wastes.

The God-given role of people as caretakers or managers of elements of nature and natural systems is illustrated through several linkages.  People manage
nature, for example, by cultivating the land to grow and harvest crops for food through agriculture, and to grow and harvest trees for wood products through
forestry.  People manage lakes and rivers for producing electricity, providing drinking water and to support  many types of recreational activities such
as boating and swimming.  People may also be involved in managing entire ecosystems to provide fish and wildlife habitat and other broad environmental
services such as protection of regional air and water quality, or even regulation of global climate.

People also manage nature through waste and pollution management and policy.  For example, people design and build waste treatment facilities to filter
harmful materials out of human sewage waste water before the water is discharged into the environment.  People also design and implement “best management
practices” for reducing waste runoff from construction sites, farms, and forest and mining operations.  Other people are trained and hired to develop and
enforce policies and laws for regulating the discharge or emissions of waste by-products into the environment from a variety of sources including point
sources (e.g., manufacturing plants) and nonpoint sources (e.g., automobiles).

This section discussing the Principle of Sustained Order and Purpose has emphasized that God created people and nature with order and purpose.   In God’s
ordering people are over nature meaning that people may take from nature to meet their needs.  However, God also expects people to give back to nature
as one of God’s intended purposes for people is to act as responsible caretakers of nature.

Principle of Universal Corruption and Redemption

The Principle of Universal Corruption and Redemption has familiar implications with respect to the relationship between men and women created in God's image
and God their Creator.  The Scriptures are clear that all men and women have sinned and fall short of the God's expectations for a righteous life.  Thus,
we are all in need of forgiveness and saving faith through a personal relationship with Jesus Christ  (1 John 1:8-9).  The Scriptures also teach that all
of creation has been corrupted by sin (Romans 8:20–22).  The effects of this universal corruption include not just separation of  people from God, but
also separation of people from themselves, each other, and nature.

The separation of people from nature as a result of sin entering the world at the time of the Fall of Mankind taught in the Bible (Genesis, Chapter 3) is
of particular interest to the topic of this paper.  First, this separation occurs at a physical level.  Nature provides beneficial services to people,
but since the Fall, nature can also be the source of physical harm to people - the physical harm to people caused by tornadoes and hurricanes are graphic
examples.  The Fall also has resulted in a spiritual separation between people and nature.  Prior to the Fall, God, people and nature had close spiritual
fellowship with each other.  The introduction of sin into the world and its corrupting effects on all of God's created works broke apart this fellowship. 

For people, forgiveness and saving faith through Jesus Christ assures personal redemption of the Believer before God, and restoration of the Believer's
relationship and fellowship with God.  Scripture teaches that God will also redeem nature and restore the relationship and fellowship between God, people
and nature in the eternal world.  God’s plan for redeeming nature is reflected in the creation covenant (Schaeffer; Van Dyke et al).

The creation covenant is God’s promise to redeem, restore, and renew the physical world including nature in the new heaven and earth he will create when
the earth we now call home no longer exists (2 Peter 3:13; Revelation 21:1).  In the New Testament of the Bible, Romans 8:19-23 speaks to the creation
covenant, saying the following: “For the creation waits in eager expectation for the sons of God to be revealed.  For the creation was subjected to frustration,
not by its own choice, but by the will of the one who subjected it, in hope that the creation itself will be liberated from its bondage to decay and brought
into the glorious freedom of the children of God.  We know that the whole creation has been groaning as in the pains of childbirth right up to the present
time.  Not only so, but we ourselves, who have the firstfruits of the Spirit, groan inwardly as we wait eagerly for our adoption as sons, the redemption
of our bodies” (Romans 8:20-23, NIV).  This passage teaches that the physical universe including nature it not destined for eternal destruction when the
world we now live in ends when Jesus Christ returns.  Rather, when God gives Believers new bodies in the new heaven and earth, He will also provide a new
beginning for nature and rest of the physical world.

In the new heaven and earth, nature will be restored to its pre-Fall magnificence and perfection.  In this new Creation of God, both people and nature will
be freed from the sufferings caused by the imperfections of the world we live today, including death and decay.  People and nature will also no longer
battle against each other as so often in the case in our world today.

In the Old Testament of the Bible, there is precedent for God establishing covenants or promises that incorporate nature.  Consider, for example, this passage
from Genesis 9: “Then God said to Noah and to his sons with him: ‘I now establish my covenant with you and with your descendants after you and with every
living creature that was with you - the birds, the livestock and all the wild animals, all those that came out of the ark with you - every living creature
on earth.  I establish my covenant with you: Never again will all life be cut off by the waters of a flood; never again will there be a flood to destroy
the earth’” (Genesis 9:8-11, NIV).  The beautiful natural rainbow is God’s sign and reminder of His covenant with Noah not to destroy life on earth again
with a great flood.  This covenant clearly includes plants and animals and every “living creature on earth”.

The creation covenant referred to in Romans 8 can be thought of as an extension of God’s covenant with Noah that includes a promise to protect and sustain
both people and nature.   God’s concern for protecting and sustaining all living creatures was illustrated by Jesus Christ who when speaking about sparrows
said that . . . “not one of them (sparrows) will fall to the ground apart from the will of your Father (God)” (Matthew 10:29, NIV).   Providing for the
continued and restored existence of nature in the new heaven and earth is consistent with what the Bible teaches about God’s love and concern for all of
His large and small works of Creation.

Practicing a Christian Environmental Ethic through Stewardship

The three general principles of a Christian environmental ethic have practical implications for the role of people as caretakers or managers of nature. 
The Bible teaches that as caretakers or managers of nature, people are to practice good stewardship.  The word “steward” and “stewardship” is used throughout
the Old and New Testaments of the Bible (Genesis 15:2; Genesis 44:1; 1 Chronicles 28:1; Matthew 20:8; 1 Corinthians 4:2; Luke 12:42; Luke 16:1-2).  The
word used for steward in the Bible can also be interpreted as  manager or servant.  

When the word for steward (manager, servant) is used in the Bible, it refers to a person who is put in charge of taking care of something that does not
belong to him or her.  This meaning is consistent with the Webster’s Dictionary definition of a steward as “one employed in a large household or estate
to manage domestic concerns”.  As stewards of nature, people have been appointed by God to manage the “domestic environmental concerns” of our planet earth

According to the Bible, general characteristics and responsibilities of a steward include being faithful, wise and responsible.  The steward should be concerned
with meeting daily needs and is not to abuse or waste what he or she has been put in charge of managing.  The steward is to maintain self-control (not
overindulging), be a “problem-solver”, and follow the household or estate owner’s wishes and instructions with respect to management (Luke 12:42-46; Luke

How are stewards held accountable according to the Bible?  Proper management actions are rewarded with “true riches” (spiritual riches).  Improper actions
are punished (something is taken away).  Stewards over more are held more accountable, especially if they do wrong when they know better (Luke 12:47-48;
Luke 16:10-12).  

Stewardship and the Principle of Creation Value

Under the Principle of Creation Value, all of God’s creations are important and valuable to God.  People hold a special particular value to God as living
beings created in His image (Genesis 1:26-30).  Part of God's provision for the well-being of people is the use of plants, animals, minerals and other
elements of nature for meeting our material needs.  These uses, for example, include farming the land to meet food and fiber needs and harvesting trees
from forests to meet wood product needs.

When using elements of nature for human benefit, the Christian environmental steward keeps in mind that all of creation ultimately belongs to God and is
valuable to God independent of human use.  This knowledge, when put into practice, means that the Christian environmental steward respects and even loves
elements of nature out of respect and love for their Creator, the triune God - Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

Godly respect and love for elements of nature leads the Christian agricultural, forestry or environmental manager to be a responsible caretaker of nature
who does not abuse or misuse what has been entrusted into his or her care by God.  The Christian  steward or manager of a farm, forest, park or natural
area, for example, would not deliberately kill plants and animals under his or care without good reason.  Although the Christian environmental steward
demonstrates Godly love and care for nature, he or she does not worship nature, only God who is its Creator.

Stewardship and the Principle of Sustained Order and Purpose

Genesis 1 establishes that although both people and nature are created works of God and under God’s authority, God has given people dominion over nature. 
But, how are people to exercise this dominion?  God created people in His own image - as His representatives on earth.  Because we are under God’s authority
in all things, we are to do God’s will when exercising our dominion over nature.

In Genesis 1:28, God tells people to subdue nature.  The word “subdue” is translated from the Hebrew work “kabash” which means to make to serve, by force
if necessary.  But “subdue” does not man “abuse”, just as the phrase “rule over” in the Bible does not mean “exercise tyranny over”.

Some specific instructions pertaining to managing nature are given in Genesis 2: “The Lord God took the man and put him in the Garden of Eden to work it
and take care of it”(Genesis 2:15, NIV).  The phrase, “to work it” means “to till it” or “to cultivate it”; the general meaning is to use productively. 
The phrase to “take care of it” means “to keep”, “to guard”, “to exercise great care over”.  The intent of “keeping, guarding, caring over” is to sustain
the function for which the element of nature or natural system being cared for was originally designed.  Sustaining the original God-designed functions
of nature is a very important objective from theological, ethical and practical standpoints.

In sum, the “good steward” according to the Bible will manage nature in a wise, self-controlled, and nonwasteful manner, always taking care to sustain the
original functions of elements of nature and natural systems.  The “poor steward”, in contrast, lacks self-control, is wasteful and irresponsible, and
cannot be trusted to take proper care of what he or she has been put in charge of managing.  The “poor steward” allows the original functions of elements
of nature or natural systems to be degraded or ruined.

In the "natural economy" of God's creation, human use and management of natural environments can have positive or negative consequences.  Negative consequences
of poor use and management can be illustrated by thinking about the end results of not properly maintaining the life-support systems built into a house
or apartment building.   The most serious consequence of this poor management is that the health and well-being of the dwelling's occupants would likely
suffer.  In extreme cases, such as when improper use or management of heating equipment allows CO2  in the indoor air to build up to unhealthy levels,
death of the dwelling's occupants may result.

If we misuse and mismanage nature, the ability of nature to support provision of goods and commodities of consumptive or nonconsumptive value to people
may be significantly reduced.  In extreme cases, essential life-support systems may be degraded to the point that plant, animal and human health and life
are seriously threatened..  However, if we use and manage nature properly as God expects us to, natural systems can continue to provide essential life-support
services and various goods and commodities of consumptive or nonconsumptive value to people.

Unfortunately, the poor management or stewardship model often describes how men and women of the world improperly exercise their dominion over nature. 
An examples of poor stewardship from agriculture is farming a tract of land until the soil is totally “burned out” and incapable of further production. 
An example from forestry is over harvesting and mismanaging a forest such that new trees can no longer be grown.  Exceeding the capacity of air and water
resources to absorb and disperse pollution so that air and water become unsafe to consume is an example of poor stewardship in the environmental pollution 
management area.

The Christian environmental steward understands that the elements of nature or natural systems that he or she may be involved in using or managing are ultimately
controlled by God according to His ways and plans.  Whether he or she is involved in the use and management of farmland, forestland, parks, natural areas,
or air and water resources at a large-scale, the Christian environmental steward realizes that human use and management of nature which run counter to
God's ways and plans are detrimental to nature and ultimately to people.  There is also a realization that whenever we go our own way rather than following
God, He is grieved by our actions.

To carry out his or her responsibilities, the Christian environmental steward attempts to learn as much as he or she can about the God-intended order and
purpose of nature.  This effort includes learning about individual elements of nature, and how these elements of nature function within natural systems
created and sustained by God.  The Christian environmental steward puts this knowledge into practice by doing his or her best to use and manage nature
within the boundaries of God's ways and plans. 

Stewardship and the Principle of Universal Corruption and Redemption

An important, overarching implication of the Principle of Universal Corruption and Redemption for the practice of Christian environmental stewardship is
that everyone who is involved in the study, use and management of nature is corrupted by sin.  Dealing with the effects of sin in our own lives and the
lives of others represents a major challenge to Christians involved in the use and care of nature through education, administration or direct management
in the field.   To effectively meet this challenge, the Christian manager of nature applies Biblical values and guidance to manage both nature and people
in a positive manner. 

The Christian environmental steward also acknowledges that God will redeem both people and nature in the new heaven and earth.   Knowing that God intends
one day to redeem nature rather than completely destroying it as some in the church today may think should motivate Christians to view and act differently
towards nature.  Just as Christians should be actively involved in their own process of redemption by "living out their faith", Christians should also
be involved as much as possible in the process of redeeming nature here and now on earth.  In the case of a Christian forester or ecologist, for example,
being involved in the restoration of a healthy forest ecosystem is consistent with and honors God's ultimate plan for redeeming nature.  In contrast, being
responsible for widespread and complete destruction of a particular forest ecosystem does not seem consistent with nor honors God's plan for redeeming

Principles and Practice of a Christian Environmental Ethic: Conclusions

We are faced in the world today with many natural resource and environmental issues and problems.  There are issues and problems related to managing nature
and the natural resources provided by nature to provide food for eating, paper for writing, lumber for construction, and areas for people to participate
in outdoor recreation and experience aesthetic enjoyment of nature.  There are issues and problems related to protecting nature from many source of degradation
or damage by people (Dewitt).  If nature is degraded or damaged by people (or even by itself), there are issues and problems related to how to go about
repairing or mitigating the environmental damage.

Christians are in a unique position to offer thoughtful solutions to the natural resource and environmental problems and issues we face in the world today. 
As mentioned at the beginning of this paper, there is growing recognition on the part of people from a variety of professional and personal backgrounds
that effective, long-term solutions to natural resource and environmental problems and issues requires an appropriate moral basis for action.  God’s word
found in the Holy Bible provides this moral basis in the form of a Christian environmental ethic that results in responsible and caring stewardship of
all of God’s creation.

The foundation of a Christian environmental ethic are the Principle of Creation Value, the Principle of Sustained Order and Purpose, and the Principle of
Universal Corruption and Redemption.  To practice effective Christian environmental stewardship, we must work on  increasing our knowledge of these principles
from Biblical, scientific and practical policy and management perspectives.  But stale, book knowledge of these principles is not enough to get the job

In Romans 12, the Apostle Paul says, “Do not conform any longer to the pattern of this world, but be transformed by the renewing of your mind.  Then you
will be able to test and approve what God’s will is - his good, pleasing and perfect will” (Romans 12:2, NIV).  This passage implies that before we can
effectively manage or take care of nature according to God’s ways and plans, we must renew or minds.  This renewal process first requires that we become
new persons through a personal relationship with Jesus Christ as Savior and Lord.  As it is said in the Scriptures, “if anyone is in Christ, he is a new
creation; the old has gone, the new has come!” (2 Corinthians 5:17). 

 Once we have become a new creation or person in Christ, our minds and thinking can and are renewed in many areas of our lives.  In the area of environmental
stewardship, a deep, personal understanding of the way God loves and sustains all of His creation gives us a new and proper perspective of the temporal
and eternal value and purposes of nature.  This understanding, when taken to heart, transforms how we view and carry out our God-given role as caretakers
of nature.

Christian caretakers of nature may be farmers, foresters, or fishermen who manage and harvest the land and waters of the earth in a productive and sustainable
manner.  They may be professional biologists, botanists, ecologists or other environmental scientists who study nature and develop scientific solutions
to problems and challenges related to managing specific parts of nature or entire natural systems.  They may be toxicologists or other human health specialist
who study the effects of environmental pollutants on people in order to develop waste management and pollution control strategies that protect and maintain
our health and quality of life.

Christian caretakers of nature may be professional economists, sociologists, or political scientists who study economic and social systems in order to help
solve problems and challenges related people’s use of natural resources and impacts on the environment.  The may also be philosophers or theologians who
help us to understand the proper Biblical perspectives on the worth and purposes of people and nature.  Professors at colleges and universities and teachers
at secondary schools can also be Christian caretakers of nature through teaching, research and public service activities that focus on providing needed
information and equipping other to meet natural resource and environmental problems and challenges now and in the future in a Christian manner.

The above listing of possible professions of Christian caretakers of nature is meant to be illustrative, not exhaustive.  The fact of the matter is that
every Christian can and should be a Christian caretaker of nature  no matter what his or her vocation or position in life happens to be.  What characteristics
distinguish the Christian caretaker of nature from others involved in the caring for and managing nature?   The proper model for the caretaking of nature
from a Biblical perspective is the Christian stewardship model (Genesis 2; Luke 12:16). 

The Christian steward of nature first recognizes that nature, like everything else in heaven and earth, was created by God, belongs to God, and is valued
by God for itself.  The Christian steward helps to utilize nature as God intended in the service of both God and people.  When making use of nature, the
Christian steward recognizes that he or she has a responsibility to manage or take care of nature in a way that is not wasteful or destructive of the original
functions of nature designed by God.

The Christian steward respects plants, animals and other elements of nature in their created order out of respect for the triune God - Father, Son and Holy
Spirit who created and continues to sustain the entire earth and universe.  The Christian steward also respects and values nature because he or she knows
that both people and nature will share in redemption and renewal in the new eternal heaven and earth.  Respecting and valuing nature never makes nature
the object of a Christian steward’s worship.  Rather, credit and honor and worship always goes to the Creator of nature and not nature itself in the same
way that credit and honor for a magnificent piece of art work does not go to the art work itself, but to the artist who created it.       

References Cited
list of 14 items
Barrett, Christopher B. and John C. Bergstrom. “The Economics of God’s Creation,” Bulletin of the Association of Christian Economists. Issue 31,  Spring,
Brown, Colin. Philosophy and the Christian Faith. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1968.
Burrell, Kevin L. “The Ethics of Environmentalism”.  Faith and Practice, Volume 2, Fall, 1996: 16-24.
Campolo, Tony. How to Rescue Earth without Worshiping Nature. Nashville, TN: Thomas Nelson, 1992.
Daly, Herman E. “The Steady-State Economy: Toward a Political Economy of Biophysical Equilibrium and Moral Growth”, in Daly, Herman E. and Kenneth N. Townsend
(editors), Valuing the Earth: Economics, Ecology, Ethics, Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1993.
DeWitt, Calvin B. “Seven Degradations of Creation”, Perspectives, February, 1989:4-8.
Means, Richard L., “Why Worry About Nature?”  Saturday Review, December 2, 1967.
Santmire, Paul H., The Travail of Nature. Philadelphia, PA: Fortress Press, 1985.
Schaeffer, Francis A., Pollution and the Death of Man: The Christian View of Ecology. Wheaton, IL: Tyndale House Publishers, 1970 [reprinted by Crossway
Books, Wheaton, IL; 1992]
Stewart, Ruth Goring. Environmental Stewardship. Global Issues Bible Studies (Series Editors: Stephen Hayner and Gordon Aeschliman).  Downers Grove, IL:
InterVarsity Press, 1990.
The Study Bible: New International Version. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan Bible Publishers, 1985.
VanDeVeer, Donald and Christine Pierce. The Environmental Ethics and Policy Book. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Company, 1998.
VanDyke, Fred, David C. Mahan, Joseph K. Sheldon, and Raymond H. Brand. Redeeming Creation: The Biblical Basis for Environmental Stewardship. Downers Grove,
IL: InterVarsity Press, 1996.
White, Lynn Jr. “The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis”, Science,Volume 155, March, 1967:1203-1207.
list end
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