Thursday, August 03, 2006

Cross-Cultural Communication 01

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Cross-Cultural Communication - Foreword & Acknowledgements
Dedicated to the children
and future leaders of
the communication age
and the global society.

Foreword

The academic underachievement of African-American and Hispanic students is documented by the large gap between standardized test scores of minority and
majority students and by the continued high rate of suspension and dropout among African-American and Hispanic teenagers. This underachievement of a large
and growing segment of our population is nothing short of a national crisis.

By the year 2010, African-Americans and Hispanics will comprise approximately 30 percent of our population. Labor force projections indicate a severe decline
in the number of blue collar jobs and a substantial increase in jobs that require high levels of technical skill. Given this economic picture, the crisis
of underachieving minority students will become a central issue in determining our nation's economic survival. We can envision a large unemployed segment
of the population and, simultaneously, a severe labor shortage in numerous highly skilled occupations. It is doubtful the United States can maintain world
leadership under these conditions. As Americans and in our roles as educators, we must work together to ensure that equitable opportunities exist for all
students. Minority children, like all children, should be given the opportunity to succeed.

Many factors have been cited for the underachievement of African-American and Hispanic students, including economics, parents, community and the environment.
The Effective Schools Research makes it clear that whatever influence is exerted by these factors, schools can make a difference. Researchers who study
effective schools have found schools serving lower income African-American and Hispanic neighborhoods where students' performance on standardized tests
is average or above. While we may not be able to control other variables, evidence indicates that schools can have a significant impact on minority students'
academic performance.

With this in mind, researchers have analyzed characteristics of effective school districts, school buildings, classrooms and teachers. They have also outlined
effective instructional strategies. The Mid Atlantic Equity Center has designed this publication series to address four essential characteristics of effective
instruction identified by these researchers, including:
teaching students to persist in their learning in Learning to Persist/Persisting to Learn;
understanding cultural diversity and its importance in the classroom in Cross-Cultural Communication: An Essential Dimension of Effective Education;
helping African-American students to build positive academic self concepts in Improving Black Student Achievement By Enhancing Students' Self Image; and
incorporating learning style differences into curriculum and instruction in Learning Styles: The Joy of Diversity.

Both Learning to Persist/Persisting to Learn and Cross-Cultural Communication: An Essential Dimension of Effective Education were first published by the
Mid Atlantic Center for Race Equity but are now available from the Mid Atlantic Equity Center.

Learning to Persist/Persisting to Learn, the first in the series, will assist teachers in improving the academic self concept of minority students by helping
teachers: (1) to understand why some students fail to successfully complete a task; (2) to identify non persisting students; and (3) to pinpoint curriculum
and instructional strategies that can help students to learn to persist. Persistence is a learned behavior, and students from lower income families are
more likely than their middle income counterparts to observe adults who lack control of their environment and to view luck or chance as a more significant
factor in success than effort or persistence. Learning to Persist/Persisting to Learn helps teachers teach students to cope with adversity and to persist
in the successful completion of a task.

Cross-Cultural Communication: An Essential Dimension of Effective Education discusses cultural differences that can lead to communication problems in the
classroom and suggests behaviors that affirm rather than devalue a minority student's culture. Since our educational institutions tend to reflect the norms
and values of the majority culture, cultural misunderstandings often have a negative effect on a minority student's academic performance. Cross-Cultural
Communication: An Essential Dimension of Effective Education assists teachers to recognize and utilize student diversity in ways that enhance academic
identity.

Improving Black Student Achievement By Enhancing Students' Self Image helps teachers to better understand the factors that contribute to a positive self
image for African-American students and to design and implement instructional strategies that will enhance African-American students' academic self concept.
While a positive academic identity is important for all students, it is a particularly critical issue for underachieving African-American students.

Learning Styles: The Joy of Diversity stresses the importance of recognizing differences in learning styles and proposes curricular and instructional strategies
for underachieving females and minority students that take those differences into account. We hope that you will find this pamphlet series helpful in your
efforts to increase the academic achievement of African-American and Hispanic students. We look forward to your comments on our publications.

Sheryl Denbo, Ph.D, Executive Director
Mid Atlantic Equity Center

Acknowledgements

I would like to acknowledge Carol Y. Dudley, Cassandra Gilchrist, Carolyn Kingsley, Julie Marshall, Kay T. Payne, and Jacqueline Zakrewsky for their assistance
in the preparation of this manuscript.


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Cross-Cultural Communication - Introduction
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Chapter I:
Introduction
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Everything that occurs within a school, and especially in the classroom, involves communication, the act of sharing information. Sometimes communication
involves the use of oral or written verbal symbols. On other occasions, communication involves various types of nonverbal symbols, including body language.


Communication is the medium for instruction, assessment, interpersonal relationships, group interactions, parent and community relations and counseling.
Most behavior problems in schools, and their resolutions, involve some type of communication. In sum, communication permeates education.

Communication is culture bound. The way an individual communicates emanates from his or her culture. Of course, a person may know more than one culture
or may be competent in a combination of cultures. Nonetheless, one basic truth prevails: communication is a product of culture.

Students with different cultural norms are at risk if teachers have little knowledge, sensitivity or appreciation of the diversity in communication styles.
Such teachers may perceive differences as problems and respond to students' diversify with negative attitudes, low expectations and culturally inappropriate
teaching and assessment procedures. Culturally and communicatively diverse students, in turn, may respond with low self concepts and low academic achievement
to a school climate they perceive as hostile. The result is reflected in these students' excessive placements in special education, reduced placements
in talented and gifted programs and high suspension rates.
list of 4 items
• Cultural Diversity in America
• The Neglect of Cross Cultural Communication Issues in Schools
• Self-Assessment on Communication and Culture
• Table I
: What Do I Know About Culture, Communication and Language?
list end

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Cultural Diversity in America

The United States is currently experiencing radical demographic shifts which are changing the colors and the cultures of its citizenry. According to recent
statistics, one American in four currently defines himself or herself as non white. By the year 2010, because of higher birth rates and immigration trends,
non whites are expected to constitute more than one third of the American people, and upwards of 50 percent of its school aged population. By the year
2050, the average U.S. resident will trace his or her descent to Africa, Asia, the Hispanic world, the Pacific Islands, the Middle East almost anywhere
but white Europe.

As diversity increases in our nation's schools, teachers, administrators and other education personnel will be challenged increasingly to become more knowledgeable
about the assumptions, attributes, and norms of a range of cultures. These challenges will occur in every dimension of school life·from the curriculum
to the communication that occurs in classrooms. As a result, the issue of cultural diversity will, by necessity, have to be taken into account if effective
education is to be a reality in our nation's schools.

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The Neglect of Cross Cultural Communication Issues in Schools

The failure of many schools to take cross cultural communication issues into account can contribute to school related problems experienced by specific groups
of children. The current crisis of African American males in many of the nation's schools demonstrates this point.

According to recent statistics, the percentage of African American males who graduate from high school has decreased since the mid 1970's. A similar trend
exists for the percentage who go on to college. In 1989, 34 percent of young African American males attended less than four years of high school and only
11 percent attended four years of college or more. In 1990, one out of four (23%) African American males ages 20 29 were in the criminal system, while
only 6% of white males and 10% of Hispanic males were in the system.

Within many schools, it is a well documented fact that African American males are disproportionately placed in special education and speech language pathology
programs, and are more likely to be recipients of disciplinary actions.

Recent research has shown that language and communication norms among African American males, particularly those of lower socioeconomic status, are related,
at least in part, to these problems. For example, lower SES African American males are likely to see the speaking of ethnically based English vernaculars,
and the use of urban argots, to be markers of masculinity and defiance of white standards.

While adherence to ethnic vernaculars allows validation to be achieved within the African American male peerage, their employment within the school setting
virtually guarantees academic problems and, sometimes, social problems. When students' communication norms conflict with the school's communication norms,
erosion of academic performance and acceptable classroom behavior frequently follows. Thus, while the use of Black vernacular speech by African American
males may be perceived as "fresh" by peers, it is viewed by teachers, all too often and incorrectly, as indicators of a slow learning, violent, undisciplined,
and obnoxious individual.

In order to address these issues, schools must build into their curricula (particularly in the language arts area) the notion that there is a time and place
for all language. In this way, respect can be given to students' culturally based vernaculars when used in informal, nonacademic activities, while teaching
them the necessity and validity of the school's language in formal academic settings. Indeed, the creative teacher uses the vernacular linguisitic system
for contrastive analysis during the process of teaching standard English. This approach encourages the African American male to adapt a bidialectal approach
to language use. Techniques for implementing these approaches to instruction are discussed elsewhere in this booklet.

In addition, the school must provide examples of strong male images who are able to alternately speak the school's language or the vernacular language,
as necessary. Jesse Jackson, Spike Lee and Arsenio Hall represent good examples of highly successful and popular African American males who can serve as
positive role models for young students, and who demonstrate competence in the standard language required in formal situations as well as the community
language when required. Though the condition of the African American male has been described in detail, many of the concepts presented in this publication
can be applied to all culturally diverse groups.

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Self Assessment on Communication and Culture

The quiz presented in
Table I
assesses a person's knowledge of the relationships among culture, communication and language. Before reading further, you may want to take this test.


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Cross-Cultural Communication - Discovering Characteristics
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Chapter II:
Discovering Characteristics Of Other Cultures
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When teachers ask "How can I learn about culture X?", all too often teachers are discouraged to learn that there is no comprehensive book (or list) available
on culture X. The lack of reading matter on various cultures is, in some ways, a blessing, since knowledge of other cultures is better acquired by experience
than by study. Thus, teachers should plan to experience cultures different from their own, particularly the cultures represented in their schools and classrooms.
To be valid, these experiences should incorporate a few basic principles and discovery techniques.

As you begin to discover the characteristics of other cultures, remember that cultures vary internally and are changeable. There are usually many cultural
differences within a single race or nationality. It will be useful to keep the following principles in mind:
list of 14 items
• Firsthand experience is necessary to understand many subtleties of any culture.
• Feelings of apprehension, loneliness or lack of confidence are common when visiting and experiencing another culture.
• Differences between cultures are often experienced as threatening.
• What is logical and important in a particular culture may seem irrational and unimportant to an outsider.
• In describing another culture, people tend to stress the differences and overlook the similarities.
• Stereotyping due to generalizing may be inevitable among those who lack frequent contact with another culture.
• Personal observations of others about another culture should be regarded with skepticism.
• Many cultures often exist within a single race, language group, religion or nationality, differentiated by age, gender, socioeconomic status, education,
and exposure to other cultures.
• All cultures have internal variations.
• Cultural awareness varies among individuals.
• One's own sense of cultural identity often is not evident until one encounters another culture.
• Cultures are continually evolving.
• Understanding another culture is a continuous process.
• One should understand the language of a culture to best understand that culture.
list end

An understanding of these principles can help you to become a more insightful observer of other cultures. Saville-Troike (1978) suggests a specific set
of questions to guide those who seek to understand another culture. Some of her questions are presented in
Table II
. They can provide the basis for interesting, informative and stimulating discussions among teachers, students, administrators and parents.



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Cross-Cultural Communication - Culture, Communication and Language
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Chapter III:
Culture, Communication and Language
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Now that your "cultural eye" has been sharpened, let us look at how culture influences students' language skills and their learning of standard English,
the language of education.

The concept of communicative competence (Hymes, 1962), based on one's knowledge of the rules of language structure and language use within a given culture,
will be useful.

A major responsibility of teachers at all grade levels is to teach the language and communication skills needed for academic success, and for career and
social mobility. Many students come from cultures which use different, though valid, communication and language systems from what is considered "normal"
in the classroom.

The study of sociolinguistics can help us understand different systems as a means of improving the quality of our instruction in language and the communication
arts.
list of 7 items
• Sociolinguistics
• Table III
: Some Varieties of Nonstandard American English
• Cultural Differences in Discourse
• Examples of Cultural and Communicative Tendencies
• Table IV
: Examples of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication
• The Significance of Culture-Based CommunicativeBehavior in School
• Table V
: Culture and Communication Conflicts in the Classroom
list end

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Sociolinguistics

Sociolinguists examine social and cultural influences on language behavior. Among the most important concepts to emerge are those relating to dialects and
language standards.

Sociolinguists have documented the presence of dialects in every language. These dialects, all of which are legitimate, are associated with educational,
economic, social and historical conditions. To linguists, the word "dialect" refers to a way of speaking a language, and not to an incorrect way of speaking
a language.

While all dialects of a given language are linguistically legitimate, some achieve social prestige. In literate, economically developed societies, the dialect
spoken by those with the most formal education, the highest socioeconomic status and the greatest degree of political power tends to acquire the greatest
social prestige. Typically, it becomes the standard for the culture, for writing and for education.

Standard dialects also provide a medium through which persons from different linguistic backgrounds can communicate with one another. Social and regional
variations may exist within standard dialects as long as they conform to specified linguistic rules, largely grammatical in nature. Standard English, therefore,
should not be considered "Northern English" or "White English," since it is spoken, in one form or another, in all parts of the United States and by some
members of all racial and cultural groups.

At the other end of the social spectrum, so called nonstandard dialects are generally spoken by the "have nots:" the powerless, the less educated, the less
economically well off and the less socially prominent. While legitimate linguistically, these dialects tend to be unacceptable to the "haves" of society.


In American English, nonstandard dialects exist within all racial, ethnic and regional groups ( see
Table III
). Each dialect is a product of distinct social, historical, cultural and educational factors. All are legitimate in that they represent the concepts,
needs and intentions of their speakers.

For a variety of reasons, including negative public attitudes and inadequate teaching models, nonstandard English speakers often do not effectively learn
standard English in school. Without competence in standard English, students will fail academically and face diminished career, social and life options.
Many students who do learn standard English do so at a great price: devaluation or rejection of their home or community dialect. When competence in standard
English is coupled with rejection of one's own home or community dialect, it may lead to serious psychological and identity problems (Chambers, 1983).


In the United States, the schools' failure to teach standard English is reflected in the poor performance of nonstandard English speakers on achievement,
aptitude and diagnostic tests. Perhaps the most alarming evidence of this failure is the low performance of nonstandard English speakers on tests used
to place students in remedial or gifted programs. Virtually all of these tests presume competence in standard English (Oakland, 1977).

Many African American children, usually from working class homes or communities, speak a nonstandard variety of English. This variety, often referred to
as Black English Vernacular, is thought by many sociolinguists to reflect African influences on American English, and is reinforced by social isolation,
segregation and group identity.

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Cultural Differences in Discourse

In addition to differences in pronunciation, vocabulary and grammatical structures among cultural groups, variations also exist in the rules for general
discourse in oral communication, covering such specific acts as narratives and conversation. In communicating with one another, teachers and students naturally
will follow the assumptions and rules governing discourse within their respective cultures. Discourse rules govern such aspects of communication as:
list of 10 items
• Opening or closing conversations;
• Taking turns during conversations;
• Interrupting;
• Using silence as a communicative device;
• Knowing appropriate topics of conversation;
• Interjecting humor at appropriate times;
• Using nonverbal behavior;
• Expressing laughter as a communicative device;
• Knowing the appropriate amount of speech to be used by participants; and
• Sequencing of elements during discourse.
list end

With respect to narratives, Gee (1985) claims that story telling during sharing time in the early school years helps to provide students the foundation
for reading and writing instruction in later grades. Both he and Michaels (1981) report that schools and teachers prefer linear, single topic story telling,
the style that is compatible with strategies encountered in reading and writing activities.

These topic centered stories are characterized by tightly structured sentences that reflect on a single or small set of highly related topics. The speaker
presumes little shared knowledge with listeners. Topic centered stories, therefore, tend to be very explicit and contain great detail, emphasizing more
telling than showing. Topic centered stories are thought by some to be associated with the field independent cognitive style. I

Gee and Michaels note further that many working class children, particularly those from oral cultures, tend to prefer a topic associating narrative style.
These story tellers presume a shared knowledge with the audience, do more showing than telling and imply linkages among a wide range of topics which need
not be presented in temporal sequence. Topic associating narrative style is thought by some to be associated with the field dependent cognitive style.


While both narrative styles provide meaningful ways for children to talk about their experiences and realities, research shows that students who tell topic
associating stories tend to be called on less and interrupted more often than do children who tell topic centered stories (Michaels, 1981). They also tend
to be wrongly considered disorganized or poor thinkers. Finally, they are more likely to be erroneously referred for psychological assessments or placed
in special education.

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Examples of Cultural and Communicative Tendencies

In this section, we will present examples of cultural and communicative tendencies observable among African American and white students from several cultural
groups in the United States. Tendencies are not universal. In order to avoid generalizations and stereotypes about cultural groups, variations within cultures
must always be considered. Highly educated people of a given cultural group are less likely to reveal indigenous language and communication patterns than
less educated persons. Moreover, many people communicate in ways influenced by other cultures.

Based on a review of literature and anecdotal reports, Taylor (1985) has listed verbal and nonverbal communication styles of working class African Americans
as they contrast with those of Anglo Americans and middle class persons of other ethnic groups. Some of these characteristics are presented in
Table IV
. Similar comparisons may be made between other cultural groups in the "typical" American classroom.

Unfamiliarity with cultural communication differences can lead to misinterpretation, misunderstanding and even unintentional insult. For example, the African
American student who shows little reserve in stating his or her feelings may be misperceived as hostile, or perhaps as dangerous. The student, meanwhile,
may see himself or herself as an honest person willing to share feelings as a necessary first step in resolving problems.

Similarly, the African American student who looks away from speakers during conversation may be erroneously perceived as showing disrespect or not paying
attention. The African American student who freely states his or her position to the teacher may be perceived as challenging the teacher's authority when
the student may be demonstrating honesty and pride in the value of his or her opinion.

Teachers, like all human beings, have their own expectations about communicative behavior. The teacher should 1) recognize any incongruencies that may exist
between his or her expectations and those of the child; 2) make certain that behavioral norms in the classroom are sufficiently broad to embrace all cultural
groups; and 3) teach the rules of standard American culture and the reasons for them.

Have you witnessed any of the behaviors identified in
Table IV
? How did you interpret what you saw? Which behaviors do you find represented in your classes? What characteristics could you add to the list from other
cultural groups? What in group variations have you observed?

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The Significance of Culture Based Communicative Behavior in School

A variety of cross cultural communication problems can arise in school, and it is important that teachers not automatically blame the student or the student's
family or culture. Problems often result from misunderstandings or value conflicts between teachers and students who are obeying different culturally based
communication rules. Some common problems linked to cultural and communicative diversity are presented in
Table V.


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Cross-Cultural Communication - Using Cross-Cultural Communication
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Chapter IV:
Using Cross Cultural Communication to Improve Relationships
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In culturally diverse communities, differences may be expected to exist in the communication styles of students, teachers, parents, administrators and noninstructional
staff. Perhaps the most important reason for educators to understand cross cultural communication is to improve their relations with the diverse groups
of students and parents they will encounter. If left ignored, communication differences will inevitably lead to various types of miscommunication which
may lead, in turn, to conflicts which erode school climate and cause certain groups of students usually African American and other nonwhite students to
feel unwelcome.

The fact that these circumstances occur is a tragedy, of course. The greater tragedy, however, is that educators do not always know how to eliminate or
minimize this type of discord.

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Tactics for Removing Cross CulturalCommunication Barriers

Once we have established the prerequisites for understanding communication issues, we should then seek to remove cross cultural communication barriers from
the school environment. The major tactics that might be employed for this purpose fall under two categories:

Removing language which appears to stereotype students; and
Reducing violations of cultural rules during discussions and conversations.

With respect to removing stereotypical language, the following strategies might be useful:
definition list of 12 items
- Be aware of words, images and situations that suggest that all or most members of a racial group are the same.
Example: "Why can't Joe ever be on time?" "He's African American, isn't he?"

- Avoid using qualifiers that reinforce racial and ethnic stereotypes.
Example: "The articulate African American student" implies that African American students typically have low verbal skills.

- Avoid racial identification except when it is essential to communication.
Example: "Judy, an outgoing student" is preferable to "Judy, an outgoing African American female student."

- Be aware of possible negative implications of color symbolism and usage that could offend people or reinforce bias.
Example: Terms such as "black magic" or "black market" can be offensive.

- Avoid language that has questionable racial or ethnic connotations.
Example: Phrases such as "culturally deprived," "culturally disadvantaged" and "you people" have racist overtones. With respect to changing communicative
behaviors which violate the cultural rules of others, the following strategies may be useful:

- Be aware of rules for attentiveness during conversation.
Example: The constant maintenance of eye contact while listening during a conversation often violates a conversational rule in working class African American
and Hispanic cultures.

- Be aware of rules regarding the distance between speakers during conversation.
Example: In some cultures, speakers stand close enough to touch often. In other cultures, distance is maintained to denote respect.

- Be aware that objects, characters and symbols may reflect different beliefs or values for different groups.
Example: The confederate flag and Uncle Remus stories may offend African Americans because they reflect the culture of slavery and the Old South.

- Be aware that cultures may vary in what they consider humorous or taboo.
Example: Ethnic humor is often perceived by many groups as evidence of racial prejudice. Discussion of in group cultural rules and behaviors with outsiders
is considered taboo within many cultures.

- Be aware of different rules for taking turns during conversations.
Example: African American children frequently perceive "breaking in" to reinforce or disagree with another's point to be perfectly permissible, indeed desirable.


- Cultures may use different standards for loudness, speed of delivery, silence, attentiveness and time to respond to another's point.
Example: Many Native American societies place high value on contemplation and tend, therefore, to feel little responsibility to make immediate responses
during conversation.

- Be aware of different cultural rules for entering into conversations in progress.
Example: African American students tend to consider conversations as private between recognized participants. Therefore, anyone, including the teacher,
who "butts in" is viewed as an eavesdropper and rebuked.
list end

One way to improve relationships across cultural lines, particularly in the upper grades, is to develop a unit on "Communicating with One Another." The
purpose of such a unit would be to teach students how to communicate more effectively across cultural lines and how to address and negotiate differences.


It is also useful for teachers to brainstorm with one another on how to remove communication barriers. In addition, a well designed staff development program
can lead to better relations among staff and generate effective cross cultural communication activities for the classroom.

It can also be useful for teachers to ask parents to identify sources of miscommunication and socially offensive behavior or language. Parents may be asked
to suggest ways that school personnel can improve communication with students, adults and the communities.

While schools have a responsibility to teach students the behavioral I codes of the society at large and to expect students to adhere to them, they have
a similar responsibility to reduce culturally induced discipline problems and to avoid misinterpreting cultural differences as behavioral problems.

Patton's (1986) research on cross cultural communication behaviors and their relationship to discipline problems at the junior high school level provides
excellent reading on this topic. Other readings are Gappa and Pearce's (1983) Removing Bias: Guidelines for Student Faculty Communication; Kochman's (1981)
Black and White Styles in Conflict; and Pickens' (1982) Without Bias: A Guidebook for Nondiscriminatory Communication.


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Cross-Cultural Communication - Teaching Standard English
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Chapter V:
Teaching Standard English To Speakers Of Nonstandard English Dialects
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There is little disagreement that educational success and expanded social and career options are linked to competence in standard English. An alarming percentage
of students who speak nonstandard English are failing to acquire standard English, the language of education. Moreover, many students who do acquire standard
English do so while being taught to reject the language of their home, community and peers. In the process, they are denied an effective element of social
solidarity, which is an important element of cultural heritage.
list of 5 items
• Why Do Nonstandard English-Speaking Children Fail to Acquire Standard English?
• Toward More Effective Teaching of Standard English
• Teaching Standard English from a Cultural Perspective
• What Is a Godd Approach to Implementing Standard English as a Second Dialect (SESD) Programs?
• How Can Aides and Parents Help?
list end

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Why Do Nonstandard English Speaking Children Fail to Acquire Standard English?

Many arguments have been advanced to explain the low achievement levels of nonstandard English speaking children, particularly African American children,
in acquiring oral competence in standard English. The most tenable argument suggests that the philosophy, assumptions and traditional classroom methodologies
employed in language arts education have failed because they have been prescriptive and corrective and have focused too much on language structure rather
than on communicative competence (Taylor, 1985). Moreover, traditional teaching methodologies have not typically been culturally sensitive, nor have they
made use of indigenous, nonstandard dialects. These significant deficiencies are probably due to naivete, or to negative attitudes toward language variations
by language arts teachers.

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Toward More Effective Teaching of Standard English

In recent years, a number of educators have begun to devise and implement instructional strategies which take into account the various language systems
that students bring into the classroom. In general, these strategies are based on modern sociolinguistic learning theory and on established principles
of second language teaching.

In 1981, California became the first state to recognize the importance of indigenous dialects in teaching standard English. Focusing primarily on the language
of African American nonstandard English speaking children, California's State Board of Public Instruction stated in part:
block quote

Many Black learners come to the school setting speaking a language that is linguistically different from standard English. The language they speak is an
integral part of the Afro-American culture . . . It is a unique language which serves a uniquely rich culture. However, the school setting and that of
the larger American society, including the economic and commercial communities, represent another linguistic sphere in which the student must learn to
move and speak successfully. To the extent that the young student fluently communicates in either language, he increases his opportunities in both realms
....

Therefore, to provide proficiency in English to California students who are speakers of Black Language and to provide equal educational opportunities for
these students, it is recommended that the State Board of Education and the State Department of Education hereby recognize:

That structured oral language practice in standard English should be provided on an ongoing basis.

That special program strategies are required to address the needs of speakers of Black language.

That parents and the general public should be informed of implications of educational strategies to address the linguistic needs of Black students.
block quote end

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Teaching Standard English from a Cultural Perspective

Teaching the standard language from a cultural perspective differs from the traditional language education approach in that it does not blame the victim.
Standard English instruction from a cultural perspective does not presuppose the devaluation or elimination of a learner's indigenous language as a pre-requisite
for learning. It recognizes that students need to retain their home dialect where its use is appropriate.

Several major requirements for teaching standard English from a cultural perspective follow. Instruction should:
list of 5 items
• Focus on both the structure of language, and on how to communicate;
• Maintain an oral basis;
• Concentrate on the structure of language, situational language requirements and language as a vehicle for thinking;
• Be linked to clearly defined long term goals; and
• Be integrated across the curriculum.
list end

A successful culturally based standard English program recognizes that learning proceeds in an orderly way from the introduction of a particular aspect
of language through its mastery. The model which has enjoyed the widest use and greatest success was designed in the late 1970s by the San Diego Oral Language
Program. It has been used with modifications in Standard English as a Second Dialect (SESD) programs in Dallas, Texas, and in Richmond and Oakland in California.
The model lists several necessary steps for learning a new linguistic system while preserving the student's indigenous system. The model includes the following
eight steps:
list of 8 items
• Developing positive attitudes toward one's own language. The first and continuing job of the teacher is to counteract negative evaluations of the students'
indigenous language. Lessons on the historical development of various dialects and on language diversity are useful in accomplishing this goal.

• Developing awareness of language varieties. Students develop a sensitivity to the various forms of a given language via stories in standard English, poems
in different dialects, and records, tapes or video recordings of various speakers. At this stage, specific likenesses and differences are emphasized.

• Recognizing, labeling and contrasting dialects. Students learn to recognize differences in various languages and dialects and to associate specific features
with each linguistic system.

• Comprehending meanings. Students learn to recognize differences in meanings and intentions when an idea is translated from one language or dialect to
another.

• Recognizing situational communication requirements. Students determine the types of speech appropriate to various situations.

• Producing in structured situations. Students practice producing successive approximations of standard English. Initially, students follow a model at this
stage, e.g., a script, choral reading or poem.

• Producing in controlled situations. Students receive instruction and practice in producing standard English without a model, e.g., role playing or retelling
a story.

• Matching the language to the situation. Students practice speaking appropriately in real life, spontaneous situations leading to communicative competence.

list end

Before beginning to teach standard English from a cultural perspective, the teacher and school need a clear language arts philosophy which embraces modern
principles of ethnology, sociolinguistics and second language instruction The philosophy and assumptions statement developed by the Richmond Unified School
District in California is a good example of what schools and teachers may usefully adopt. (See Appendix I.)

Finally, before beginning program implementation, the teacher and school community must become thoroughly familiar with the following general principles
of second dialect instruction:
list of 10 items
• Instruction should be preceded by a non biased assessment of each learner's knowledge of his or her first dialect and of the second dialect.
• Students must feel positive toward their own dialects.
• Students must want to learn another dialect. If motivation is not present, the teacher must help students discover the advantages of acquiring the second
dialect.
• Instruction must consider the language goals of students, their families and their communities.
• Instruction must take into account cultural values associated with learning and teaching.
• Instruction must accommodate the preferred cognitive learning styles of the students. Some children prefer a field independent (object oriented) cognitive
style. Others prefer a field dependent (social oriented) cognitive style. Both are valid, however, schools tend to be more oriented toward the field independent
style. See Appendix II for a summary of these two preferred cognitive styles.
• Both the teacher and students must be able to contrast the linguistic and communicative rules of the existing and targeted dialects.
• Linguistic and communicative features of the existing dialect should be compared with those of the targeted dialect.
• Instruction should be integrated with students' experiences.
• Both the teacher and students must believe that it is possible to acquire a second dialect.
list end

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
What Is a Good Approach to Implementing Standard
English as a Second Dialect (SESD) Programs?

Minimum standards must be established for evaluating the validity of culturally based SESD curricula and teaching/learning strategies. An SESD program should:

list of 10 items
• Permit students to demonstrate their listening skills by summarizing, responding, paraphrasing or following directions.
• Allow varied and frequent opportunities for students to communicate with each other.
• Provide students opportunities to summarize, analyze or evaluate oral or written communication completed by themselves, their peers or the teacher.
• Provide students opportunities to listen and respond appropriately to the teacher, their classmates or audio visual materials.
• Allow students to use speech for different purposes in a variety of situations, e.g., persuading, informing, imagining, questioning or asserting.
• Teach students how to evaluate the effectiveness of their own communication.
• Stress that learning new speech patterns is linked to short term and long term goals.
• Underscore the importance of situation, audience or topic during communication.
• Indicate that oral communication activities will be included throughout the total curriculum.
• Have a clear language and communication focus.
list end

The Richmond and Los Angeles school districts in California and Dade County Public Schools in Miami, Florida, have developed lessons and support materials
for implementing SESD programs. Names and addresses of information sources on SESD programs are presented in
Appendix III.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
How Can Aides and Parents Help?

The teaching of a second dialect cannot be solely the responsibility of the classroom teacher, no more than it can be limited to the language arts classroom.
Teacher aides and parents can support the instructional process and assist children's language development in general and SESD instruction in particular
by:
list of 12 items
• Encouraging children to speak in a variety of situations and before many audiences;
• Establishing talking as a frequent, enjoyable and secure activity;
• Modeling and expanding students' speech into language appropriate for the topic, situation and audience;
• Pointing out what language and communicative behaviors are appropriate as situations occur;
• Discouraging teasing about speech;
• Not over-correcting students' speech;
• Linking corrections of speech to the situation;
• Providing the school and teachers with examples of speech used in the home and community to incorporate in instruction, assessment and teacher training;

• Reinforcing writing or reading activities with activities that include talking;
• Providing an abundance of verbal stimuli for students irrespective of language or communication competencies;
• Encouraging students to engage in conversations with a variety of people and on a variety of subjects; and
• Encouraging students to recount their experiences in narrative form as often as possible and before a variety of audiences.



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Cross-Cultural Communication - Communication Differences
block quote

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chapter VI:
Communication Differences, Test Performance and Educational Placement
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Virtually all tests and assessment procedures used in schools and classrooms require students to manipulate information using tools of communication. Often
these tests and procedures presume competence in standard English and in the communication rules of the educated segment of society.

Much discussion and research in the last decade have focused on test bias and on culturally fair methods for assessing students" behavior and knowledge.
Indeed, a number of court cases and legislative initiatives have prohibited the use of culturally discriminatory tests and assessment procedures, e.g.,
Public Law 94 142: the Education for All Handicapped Children Act.

Culturally biased tests can adversely affect students from many cultural groups, particularly those who do not speak standard English. For example, these
tests can contribute to:
list of 6 items
• Lowered expectations of student performance;
• Negative attitudes toward low performing students;
• Lowered self esteem and expectations by students;
• Lowered expectations of student performance by parents;
• Inappropriate placement in special education and speech/language therapy programs; and
• Lowered probability of placement in talented and gifted programs.
list end

While classroom teachers do not typically administer standardized tests, they do use assessment procedures in classrooms. Also, because students are placed
in classes on the basis of standardized test results administered by others, teachers' expectations of students are often influenced by such test results.
Furthermore, teachers typically take part in the referral and evaluation process to determine whether a student needs special education or related services.
For these reasons, and others, teachers should understand test and assessment bias and should know what to do about it.
list of 2 items
• Sources of Bias in Tests and Assessment Procedures
• What to Do About Assessment Bias
list end

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sources of Bias in Tests and Assessment Procedures

In general, teachers should be aware of seven major sources of test and assessment bias. They are presented with examples in
Table VI.

Teachers need to be aware of how communicative factors can influence test performance and of the impact their evaluations of students' performance can have.
For example, if students fail to understand test directions, they may respond incorrectly to a whole series of questions. If they are not competent in
standard English, students may answer questions incorrectly because of inaccurate analyses of their content. If their cognitive learning style is field
dependent or synthesizing rather than field independent or analytical, they may have difficulty with formats which seek best answers to questions when
all answers contain an element of truth. Furthermore, students may hold different values than those assumed by the teacher or they may obey different communicative
rules for verbal behavior in the social situation which test questions address. Finally, the teacher may misinterpret a student's culturally based communicative
style and draw erroneous conclusions about the student's knowledge.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
What to Do About Assessment Bias

It is not reasonable to expect that teachers will develop their own culturally fair tests and assessment procedures. However, teachers can contribute to
a more positive assessment environment for culturally diverse students. According to Taylor and Payne (1983), teachers can address the assessment bias
issue in the following ways:
list of 12 items
• Ensure that all students understand the test directions.
• Ensure that the test does not presume linguistic knowledge that students may not have unless, of course, the test is designed to assess knowledge of a
specific language or dialect.
• The test should not require students to articulate values which they do not share.
• The test should be compatible with the preferred learning styles of the student.
• Situational and interactional constraints must be considered from a cultural perspective in evaluating oral communication behavior on tests.
• In the scoring or interpretation of test performance, the student's response style must be considered.
• When referring students for special testing or placement in special education, be certain that results of evaluations are not flawed by cultural differences
in behavior and language.
• Do not include culturally discriminatory items on tests.
• Accept as correct those test answers which are considered valid within the student's culture, even if the particular answer is not listed in the manual
as being correct.
• Consider two scores for tests which have a cultural component, a culturally unadjusted score and a culturally adjusted score.
• Support efforts to decrease reliance on standardized tests for assessments, using alternative assessment procedures where possible and appropriate.
• Support efforts to involve parents and the community in assessing test findings.
list end

New standardized tests and assessment procedures are needed which are culturally valid. Until those tests are available, teachers should be skeptical of
the results of most standardized tests administered to culturally and linguistically diverse children and should exercise caution in using these results
for making placement decisions.



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Cross-Cultural Communication - Communication Differences
block quote

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chapter VII:
Communication Differences and Discipline Problems
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
list of 3 items
• Table VII
: Explanations of Blame
• Sources of Cultural and Communicative Incongruities
• What Do We Do About Cultural and Communicative Sources of Student Misbehavior?
list end

Most educators would agree that schools have a responsibility to establish an educational environment that encourages positive learning experiences for
all students. Many would also claim that schools should be expected to teach students the social behaviors which are considered acceptable by the society
at large, as well as the sanctions which are likely to be applied when acceptable standards are violated. In light of these dual and sometimes conflicting
imperatives, the disproportionate suspension and expulsion rates for minority students throughout the nation are cause for considerable concern. In 1979,
for example, the National Advisory Committee on Black Higher Education and Black Universities and Colleges reported that while students from minority ethnic
groups comprised approximately 25 percent of the nation's public school population, they comprised 40 percent of those suspended. A 1982 Fact Sheet on
Institutional Racism revealed that while 16 percent of the nation's students were African American, they comprised 29 percent of all suspensions and 27
percent of all expulsions.

In a 1984 report by the Minority Relations Monitoring Committee of Montgomery County, Maryland, it was stated that:
block quote

. . .Nowhere is the school system more vulnerable to the charge of being "unfair" in dealing with its students than in the manner in which it manages student
behavior . . . Clearly the difference in suspension rates of White and African American students in many of the senior high schools is so broad as to constitute
a serious threat to the opportunity for an equal education.
block quote end

Many reasons are given to explain the high rate of discipline problems among minority students, particularly African Americans. Some blame the institution;
others blame the student or victim. (see
Table VII)

Before drawing any conclusions relative to the cause of the high rate of discipline problems and suspension and expulsion rates for non white students,
it would be useful to explore the major types of student behaviors that teachers report as being unacceptable. Mitchell (1983) reports that five of the
nine most frequently reported behaviors involve cultural and communicative issues, e.g., verbal threats, classroom disruptions and disrespect.

You may recall that the claim was made that every human encounter·positive or negative·reflects cultural assumptions upon which communication rules are
based. This claim leads us to advance two important hypotheses about cross cultural communication and school discipline problems:
list of 2 items
• Discord is inevitable among students when they have different perceptions of the rules for communication and what is appropriate and acceptable behavior.

• Teachers and other school personnel are more likely to perceive students' behaviors, including their communicative behaviors, as being disruptive and
discordant when those behaviors diverge from the norms of the school.
list end

Schools reflect culture, mainly the culture of the dominant society. Patton (1986) claims that schools are a microculture with a distinct system of preferred
and required communicative behaviors. This culture, she asserts, is more congruent with some cultures than with others. Typically, it reflects the values
and norms of the immediate community. Students with cultural and communicative norms which are incongruous with the schools" norms are more likely, she
argues, to engage in unacceptable behavior.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sources of Cultural and Communicative Incongruities Which Lead to Discipline Problems

Research suggests that several categories of communicative behavior are considered unacceptable in many, if not most, school environments. While some of
these unacceptable behaviors do not result in sanctions, many do. Examples of behaviors which almost always are punished include:
list of 15 items
• Challenging the teacher's authority;
• Using obscene language in class;
• Using obscene language with other students;
• Not listening quietly when the teacher is presenting a lesson;
• Moving around the room when the teacher is presenting a lesson;
• Interrupting another student;
• Seeking assistance from another student on a test;
• Not waiting until one person has finished speaking before taking a turn;
• Ignoring the teacher's directions;
• Responding in a loud voice;
• Socializing in class;
• Being late to class;
• Not walking away during discord;
• Using physical means to settle a conflict; and
• Showing emotion during discord.
list end

Each of the behaviors listed above may be in conflict with communication rules for a given cultural group. The teacher's task is to determine through reading,
discussion and observation which perceived behaviors could have a different cultural significance for the groups represented in the classroom.

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
What Do We Do About Cultural and Communicative Sources of Student Misbehavior?

While the majority of students, including those from minority groups, learn, accept and conform to the rules of schools, cultural differences may play an
important role in apparent discipline problems in the school. These differences cannot account for all student misbehavior, yet many discipline problems
may result from students' failure to know, accept or conform to school norms which are either divergent or incongruous with their own cultural or communicative
norms.

School personnel should be open to examining the causes of perceived misbehavior in the classroom. In those cases where school or classroom norms are intolerant
of cultural differences, revisions of school norms would seem to be most appropriate. Where school norms are generally congruent with norms across the
cultural spectrum of the school community, the school has a responsibility to teach those norms to the student. One cannot expect that all students come
to school with prior knowledge or acceptance of school norms.

In any case, schools, like all institutions, must establish reasonable rules of conduct, but these rules should be sensitive to the cultural assumptions,
values and communication expectations of the total school community.

The following activities are useful in considering cross cultural communication issues for addressing school discipline problems:
list of 4 items
• Devise a plan for teaching all students the acceptable communicative behaviors of the school and the justification for them.
• Devise a plan for teaching students the nature, origin and need for rules to govern school and classroom communicative behavior, while simultaneously
recognizing the validity of other behaviors in different settings, such as students' homes or communities.
• Determine which school or classroom norms may be in conflict with cultural or communicative norms of specific cultural groups.
• Engage in discussions with colleagues on how school or classroom norms might be revised to make them more sensitive to the various cultural groups in
the school community.



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Cross-Cultural Communication - Summary
block quote

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Chapter VIII:
Summary
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

This booklet has reviewed several basic concepts relating to culture, communication and language and has shown how communication issues affect human behavior
in general and school life in particular. Also, suggestions have been made relative to instruction, assessment, interpersonal relationships and discipline.


You might now re-take the introductory test from
Table I
. Any change reflected in your score will give you a measure of what you have learned about culture and communication.

To put into use what you have learned, consider working with your colleagues to:
list of 4 items
• Integrate cross cultural communication topics and materials into the curriculum;
• Educate those who administer standardized tests that different styles of communication are used by various cultural groups;
• Review and revise classroom tests to eliminate cultural bias; and
• Address cross cultural communication issues in all phases of school life.
list end

Suggestions for classroom utilization have been made throughout the booklet. The rest is up to you. Cross cultural communication is an ongoing process.
Mistakes are inevitable, but sensitivity to cultural and communication issues can enhance the quality of education for all students.



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Cross-Cultural Communication - Appendix I
block quote

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appendix I
Philosophy and Assumptions of Richmond, California,
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Effective communication is a basic skill to be mastered by all students. Each student enters school with a well developed language system which should be
respected and utilized, where appropriate, by the classroom teacher in planning and implementing standard English instruction.

Students need to learn standard English for use in those situations where it is appropriate, while at the same time, they are reinforced of the value of
their home language.

Assumptions
definition list of 4 items
I. On the Role of Oral Communication in Education
Learning in the school setting is dependent upon communication·apoken, written and/or nonverbal. In general, oral communication serves as the foundation
for all other types of linguistic behavior in and out of school.

II. On Standard English
In a heterogeneous linguistic and cultural society such as the United States, a common ground of communication must be established for many types of information
exchange. In the United States, standard English serves that purpose. Competence in this dialect provides an individual with a wider range of academic,
esthetic, social, business and professional options than would otherwise be available. One of the responsibilities of schools is to teach all students
to read, write, speak and auditorially comprehend standard English in situations, topics, disciplines and audiences where it is required. The acquisition
of these skills is expected to provide students with a necessary tool for academic and/or career success.

III. On Home and Community Languages
The need for a standard language as a unifying force in a heterogeneous society does not diminish, in any way, the value of the languages and dialects of
the various cultural groups within a local community. These indigenous language forms not only serve as an integral cultural and historical link for all
groups, they also provide an important means of expression and creativity for individual speakers. DISRESPECT AND NON RECOGNITION OF HOME LANGUAGES AND
DIALECTS CAN LEAD TO THE DEVELOPMENT OF NEGATIVE SELF CONCEPTS, POOR MORALE AND LOW MOTIVATION IN LEARNERS.

IV. On the Characteristics of a Culturally Based Oral Communication Program
A culturally based oral communication program recognizes and celebrates linguistic diversity while teaching students standard English. It teaches verbal
and nonverbal communication which meets the demands of different audiences, situations and topics. Instruction is sensitive to the aspirations and needs
of the learner. It respects and builds on the culture, language and distinct learning styles the child brings to school and responds to the need to transmit
specific skills and competencies. The curriculum must be based on a sound instructional model which cuts across all phases of the curriculum and school
life and utilizes, where permissible, educational materials which are culturally familiar and valid. Finally, the program must contain ongoing external
self evaluations of both the learner and the teacher.


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Cross-Cultural Communication - Appendix II

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appendix II
Some Attributes of Field Independent and Field Dependent Cognitive Styles (Adapted from Ramirez and Castaneda, 1974).
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Student Characteristics
Field Independent Cognitive Style
Field Dependent Cognitive Style
Overall characteristics
list of 3 items
• Focuses on parts, rather than on the whole
• Is reality oriented to objects and analyses of discrete elements
• Demonstrates topic centered narrative style
list end
list of 3 items
• Focuses on the whole, rather than the parts
• Is reality oriented to relationships and social attributes
• Demonstrates topic associating narrative style
list end
Relationship to peers:
list of 3 items
• Prefers to work independently
• Likes to compete and gain individual recognition
• Is task oriented and inattentive to social environment when working
list end
list of 3 items
• Likes to work with others to achieve a common goal
• Likes to assist others
• Is sensitive to feelings and opinions of others
list end
Personal relationship to teacher:
list of 2 items
• Rarely seeks physical contact with teacher
• Interacts with teacher to tasks at hand
list end
list of 2 items
• Openly expresses positive feelings for teacher
• Asks questions about teacher's tastes and personal experiences; seeks to become like teacher
list end
Instructional relationship to teacher:
list of 3 items
• Likes to try new tasks without teacher's help
• Is impatient to begin tasks; likes to finish first
• Seeks nonsocial rewards
list end
list of 3 items
• Seeks guidance and demonstration from teacher
• Seeks rewards which strengthen relationship with teacher
• Is highly motivated when working individually with teacher
list end
Characteristics of curriculum that facilitate learning:
list of 3 items
• Details of concepts are emphasized; parts have meanings of their own
• Mathematics and science concepts are emphasized
• Emphasis placed on discovery
list end
list of 3 items
• Performance objectives and global aspects of curriculum are carefully explained
• Concepts are presented in humanized or story format
• Concepts are related to personal interests and experiences


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Cross-Cultural Communication - Appendix III
block quote

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Appendix III
Information Sources on SESD Programs
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

California

Compensatory Education Services
California Department of Public Instruction
721 Capital Mall, 2nd Floor
Sacramento, California 95814
(916) 445-2590

Language Arts Programs Division
San Diego City Public Schools
Education Center
4100 Normal Street
San Diego, CA 92103
(619) 293-8531

Proficiency in English Program (PEP)
Los Angeles Unified School District
1320 W. 3rd Street
Los Angeles, CA 90017
(213) 625-6684

Standard English Program
Oakland Unified School District
314 East 10th Street
Oakland, California 94606
(415) 836-8269

Standard English Program
Richmond Unified School District
1108 Bissel Avenue
Richmond, California 94802
(415) 234-3825

Florida

Office of Bilingual Education
Dade County Public School District
1415 N.E. 2nd Street
Miami, Florida 33132
(305) 376-1454

Texas

Dallas Independent School District
3700 Ross Avenue
Dallas, Texas 75204
(214) 824-1620



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Cross-Cultural Communication - Bibliography and Suggested Readings
block quote

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Bibliography and Suggested Readings
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Bogatz, B.; Hisama, T.; Manni, J.L.; and Wurtz, R. "Cognitive Assessment of Nonwhite Children." In Treatment of Communication Disorders in Culturally and
Linguistically Diverse Populations, edited by O.L. Taylor. San Diego, CA: College-Hill Press, 1986.

_____. Student Oral Language Observation Matrix. Sacramento, CA: Office of Bilingual Bicultural Education, California State Department of Education, 1981.


Chambers, John, ed. Black English, Educational Equity and the Law. Ann Arbor, MI: Karoma Publishers, Inc., 1983.

_____. Fact Sheets on Institutional Racism. New York: Council on Interracial Books for Children, 1982.

Gappa, J.M. and Pearce, J. Removing Bias: Guidelines for Student-Faculty Communication. Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association, 1983.

Gee, J.P. "The Narrativization of Experience in the Oral Style." Boston University Journal of Education 167(1), 1985.

Hale-Benson, J.E. Black Children: Their Roots, Culture, and Learning Styles. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1982, 1986.

Harbin, G., and Brantley, J. Model for Indentifying and Minimizing Potential Sources of Child Evaluation Bias. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina,
1978.

Heath, S.B. Ways with Words: Language, Life and Work in Communities and Classrooms. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press, 1983.

Hymes, D. "The Ethnography of Speaking." In Anthropology and Human Behavior, edited by T. Gladwin and W.C. Sturtevant. Washington D.C.: Anthropological
Society of Washington, 1962

Kochman, T. Black and White Styles in Conflict. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press, 1981.

Michaels, S. "Hearing the Connections in Children's Oral and Written Discourse." Boston University Journal of Education 167(1), 1985.

Michaels, S. "Sharing Time: Children's Narrative Styles and Differential Access to Literacy." Language in Society 10, 1981.

Mitchell, C. "Analysis of Student Suspensions in Montgomery County Public Schools." In Summary of Montgomery County Public Schools Data on Differences in
Minority and Majority Performance and Participation, edited by J. A. Frechtling, K. M. Hebbeler and S. M. Frankel. Rockville, MD: Department of Educational
Accountability, Montgomery County Public Schools, 1984.

National Advisory Committee on Black Higher Education and Black Universities and Colleges. Access of Black Americans to Higher Education: Now Open is the
Door? Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1979.

Oakland, T. Psychological and Educational Assessment of Minority Children. New York, NY: Brunner/Mazel, 1977.

Patton, J. "Situated Communications Mismatches in the Junior High School: An Analysis of Institutional Rules for Behavior." Ph.D. diss., Howard University,
1986.

Penalosa, F. An Introduction to the Sociology of Language. Rowley, MA: Newbury House, 1981.

Pickens, J. E., ed. Without Bias: A Guidebook for Nondiscriminatory Communication. 2d ed. New York, NY: John Wiley and Sons, 1982.

Ramirez, M. and Castenada, A. Cultural Democracy, Bicognitive Development, and Education. New York: Academic Press, 1974.

Rich, A. L. Interracial Communication. New York, NY: Harper Row, 1974.

Saville-Troike, M. "Anthropological Considerations in the Study of Communication." In Nature of Communication Disorders in Culturally and Linguistically
Diverse Populations, edited by O. L. Taylor. San Diego, CA: College Hill Press, 1986.

Saville Troike, M. The Ethnography of Communication: An Introduction. Baltimore, MD: University Park Press, 1982.

Saville Troike, M. A Guide to Culture in the Classroom. Rosslyn, VA: National Clearinghouse for Bilingual Education, 1978.

Smitherman, G. Talkin and Testifyin: The Language of Black America. Detroit, MI: Wayne State University Press, 1986.

Taylor, O. L., ed. Nature of Communication Disorders in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations. San Diego, CA: College Hill Press, 1986.

Taylor, O. L., ed. Treatment of Communication Disorders in Culturally and Linguistically Diverse Populations. San Diego, CA: College Hill Press, 1986.

Taylor, O. L. "Communications Styles of Some Ethnic Groups." Howard University, 1985.

Taylor, O. L. "Standard English as a Second Dialect." English Today 1(2), 1985.

Taylor, O. L. and Payne, K. T. "Culturally Valid Testing: A Proactive Approach." Topics in Language Disorders 3(3), 1983.

Taylor, O. L. and Lee, D. Standardized Tests and African Americans, Negro Educational Review, XXXVIII, 67 80, 1987.

Taylor, O. L. and Matsuda, M. Storytelling and Classroom Discrimination. In Smitherman Donaldson, G. and van Dijk, T. (Eds.), Discourse and Discrimination.
Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1988.

Wood, B. S. Development of Functional Communication Competencies: Pre K Grade 6/Grades 7-12. Annandale, VA: Speech Communication Association, 1977.

"Young, Black and in Prison in America." FCNL Newsletter. Washington, D.C., July 1990

The author is Dean of the School of Communications at Howard University in Washington, D.C.

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Cross-Cultural Communication - Foreword & Acknowledgements
Dedicated to the children
and future leaders of
the communication age
and the global society.

Foreword

The academic underachievement of African-American and Hispanic students is documented by the large gap between standardized test scores of minority and
majority students and by the continued high rate of suspension and dropout among African-American and Hispanic teenagers. This underachievement of a large
and growing segment of our population is nothing short of a national crisis.

By the year 2010, African-Americans and Hispanics will comprise approximately 30 percent of our population. Labor force projections indicate a severe decline
in the number of blue collar jobs and a substantial increase in jobs that require high levels of technical skill. Given this economic picture, the crisis
of underachieving minority students will become a central issue in determining our nation's economic survival. We can envision a large unemployed segment
of the population and, simultaneously, a severe labor shortage in numerous highly skilled occupations. It is doubtful the United States can maintain world
leadership under these conditions. As Americans and in our roles as educators, we must work together to ensure that equitable opportunities exist for all
students. Minority children, like all children, should be given the opportunity to succeed.

Many factors have been cited for the underachievement of African-American and Hispanic students, including economics, parents, community and the environment.
The Effective Schools Research makes it clear that whatever influence is exerted by these factors, schools can make a difference. Researchers who study
effective schools have found schools serving lower income African-American and Hispanic neighborhoods where students' performance on standardized tests
is average or above. While we may not be able to control other variables, evidence indicates that schools can have a significant impact on minority students'
academic performance.

With this in mind, researchers have analyzed characteristics of effective school districts, school buildings, classrooms and teachers. They have also outlined
effective instructional strategies. The Mid Atlantic Equity Center has designed this publication series to address four essential characteristics of effective
instruction identified by these researchers, including:
teaching students to persist in their learning in Learning to Persist/Persisting to Learn;
understanding cultural diversity and its importance in the classroom in Cross-Cultural Communication: An Essential Dimension of Effective Education;
helping African-American students to build positive academic self concepts in Improving Black Student Achievement By Enhancing Students' Self Image; and
incorporating learning style differences into curriculum and instruction in Learning Styles: The Joy of Diversity.

Both Learning to Persist/Persisting to Learn and Cross-Cultural Communication: An Essential Dimension of Effective Education were first published by the
Mid Atlantic Center for Race Equity but are now available from the Mid Atlantic Equity Center.

Learning to Persist/Persisting to Learn, the first in the series, will assist teachers in improving the academic self concept of minority students by helping
teachers: (1) to understand why some students fail to successfully complete a task; (2) to identify non persisting students; and (3) to pinpoint curriculum
and instructional strategies that can help students to learn to persist. Persistence is a learned behavior, and students from lower income families are
more likely than their middle income counterparts to observe adults who lack control of their environment and to view luck or chance as a more significant
factor in success than effort or persistence. Learning to Persist/Persisting to Learn helps teachers teach students to cope with adversity and to persist
in the successful completion of a task.

Cross-Cultural Communication: An Essential Dimension of Effective Education discusses cultural differences that can lead to communication problems in the
classroom and suggests behaviors that affirm rather than devalue a minority student's culture. Since our educational institutions tend to reflect the norms
and values of the majority culture, cultural misunderstandings often have a negative effect on a minority student's academic performance. Cross-Cultural
Communication: An Essential Dimension of Effective Education assists teachers to recognize and utilize student diversity in ways that enhance academic
identity.

Improving Black Student Achievement By Enhancing Students' Self Image helps teachers to better understand the factors that contribute to a positive self
image for African-American students and to design and implement instructional strategies that will enhance African-American students' academic self concept.
While a positive academic identity is important for all students, it is a particularly critical issue for underachieving African-American students.

Learning Styles: The Joy of Diversity stresses the importance of recognizing differences in learning styles and proposes curricular and instructional strategies
for underachieving females and minority students that take those differences into account. We hope that you will find this pamphlet series helpful in your
efforts to increase the academic achievement of African-American and Hispanic students. We look forward to your comments on our publications.

Sheryl Denbo, Ph.D, Executive Director
Mid Atlantic Equity Center

Acknowledgements

I would like to acknowledge Carol Y. Dudley, Cassandra Gilchrist, Carolyn Kingsley, Julie Marshall, Kay T. Payne, and Jacqueline Zakrewsky for their assistance
in the preparation of this manuscript.

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